Americas alliances are an asset that are the envy of Russia and China. Nato is an inheritance that is all the more precious for being irreplaceable. The need for security remains. Russia is not the soviet Union but, as a declining power, it feels threatened. It has modernized its forces and is prepared to deploy them. The need to anchor European democracy remains, too. . As authoritarianism creeps up on Poland and Hungary, the eu and nato can once again help limit its advance. And there is the extra benefit of how Europe helps America project power, by providing bases, troops and, usually, diplomatic support.
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Italy has a new populist coalition that is pro-putin. So, increasingly, is Turkey, a member of nato (but not the eu) which is hostile to the liberal democratic values that bind the alliance. . Worse could be in store. . a labour government in Britain under Jeremy corbyn, who has a long history of opposing the use of arms by the west, would treat America with deep suspicion; he could even try to leave nato. This newspaper believes that the western alliance is worth saving. In a dangerous and increasingly authoritarian world, it can act as a vital source of security and a bastion of democracy. But the alliance does not have a god-given right to survive. It must continually earn its place. If nato and the eu did not already exist, they would not be created. . Since the soviet collapse, the sense of threat has receded and the barriers to working together have risen. Yet that does not make the transatlantic alliance obsolete,.
Trump delights in confounding his critics the differing priorities, divergent beliefs and clashing political cultures will remain. The western alliance is in trouble, and that should worry europe, america and the world. Every alliance has its tensions, but the western one is strained on a bewildering biography number of fronts. . Trump, and his generals, are exasperated by the feeble efforts of many nato members to honor their promise to raise defense spending towards 2 of gdp by 2024. The American right tends to condemn European support for the Iranian nuclear deal, and what it sees as a bias against Israel. And policymakers from both parties think that, as the worlds attention shifts to Asia, whining, sanctimonious Europeans deserve less of their time. As if that were not enough,. Trump fatuously accuses the eu of being set up to take advantage of the United States and chastises it for unfair trade. . meanwhile, europe is divided.
The United States acted partly out of charity, but chiefly out of self-interest. Having been dragged into two world wars, it wanted to banish Franco-german rivalry and build a rampart against the soviet threat. After the soviet collapse writing in 1991, the alliance anchored democracy in the newly liberated states of Eastern Europe. Today, however, America and Europe are separated by a growing rift. The mood before the nato summit in Brussels on July 11th and 12th is poisonous. As President Donald Trump accuses the europeans of bad faith and of failing to pull their weight, they accuse him of crass vandalism. . A second summit, between Vladimir Putin and. Trump in Helsinki on July 16th, could produce the once-unthinkable spectacle of an American president treating his Russian opponent better than he has just treated his allies. Even if the two summits pass off without controversy as they might, given how.
The nato summit is Wednesday and Thursday. . Friday, trump goes to Britain for a pseudo-state visit, and then on July 16, its Trump and Putin. All this while the trade war between the United States and China, and between the. And other players, takes what effect we do not yet know. What we do know is next week is likely to be a thrill a minute. Editorial / The Economist, america did as much as any country to create post-war Europe. In the late 1940s and the 1950s it was midwife to the treaty that became the european Union and to nato, the military alliance that won the cold War.
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The research by mueller and Oppenheimer serves as a reminder, however, that even when technology allows us to do more in less time, it does not always foster learning. . learning involves more than the receipt and the regurgitation of information. . If we want students to synthesize material, draw inferences, see new connections, evaluate evidence, and apply concepts in novel situations, we need to encourage the deep, effortful cognitive processes that underlie these abilities. . When it comes to taking notes, students need fewer gigs, more brain power. Are you a scientist who specializes in neuroscience, cognitive science, or psychology? And have you read a recent peer-reviewed paper that you would like to write about?
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Because students can use these party posted materials to access lecture content with a mere click, there is no need to organize, synthesize or summarize in their own words. . Indeed, students may take very minimal notes or not take notes at all, and may consequently forego the opportunity to engage in the mental work that supports learning. Beyond altering students cognitive processes and thereby reducing learning, laptops pose other threats in the classroom. . In the mueller and Oppenheimer studies, all laptops were disconnected from the internet, thus eliminating any disruption from email, instant messaging, surfing, or other online distractions. . In most typical college settings, however, internet access is available, and evidence suggests that when college students use laptops, they spend 40 of class time using applications unrelated to coursework, are more likely to fall off task, and are less satisfied with their education. . In one study with law school students, nearly 90 of laptop users engaged in online activities unrelated to coursework for at least five minutes, and roughly 60 were distracted for half the class. Technology offers innovative tools that are shaping educational experiences for students, often in positive and dynamic ways. .
Despite these instructions, students using laptops showed the same level of verbatim content and were no better in synthesizing material than students who received no such warning. . It is possible these direct instructions to improve the quality of laptop notes failed because it is so easy to rely on less demanding, mindless processes when typing. Its important to note that most of the studies that have compared note taking by hand versus laptop have used immediate memory tests administered very shortly (typically less than an hour) after the learning session. . In real classroom settings, however, students are often english assessed days if not weeks after learning new material. . Thus, although laptop users may not encode as much during the lecture and thus may be disadvantaged on immediate assessments, it seems reasonable to expect that the additional information they record will give them an advantage when reviewing material after a long delay. mueller and Oppenheimer included a study in which participants were asked to take notes by hand or by laptop, and were told they would be tested on the material in a week. . When participants were given an opportunity to study with their notes before the final assessment, once again those who took longhand notes outperformed laptop participants. . Because longhand notes contain students own words and handwriting, they may serve as more effective memory cues by recreating the context (e.g., thought processes, emotions, conclusions) as well as content (e.g., individual facts) from the original learning session. These findings hold important implications for students who use their laptops to access lecture outlines and notes that have been posted by professors before class. .
this theory, mueller and Oppenheimer assessed the content of notes taken by hand versus laptop. . Their studies included hundreds of students from Princeton and ucla, and the lecture topics ranged from bats, bread, and algorithms to faith, respiration, and economics. . Content analysis of the notes consistently showed that students who used laptops had more verbatim transcription of the lecture material than those who wrote notes by hand. . Moreover, high verbatim note content was associated with lower retention of the lecture material. . It appears that students who use laptops can take notes in a fairly mindless, rote fashion, with little analysis or synthesis by the brain. . This kind of shallow transcription fails to promote a meaningful understanding or application of the information. If the source of the advantage for longhand notes derives from the conceptual processes they evoke, perhaps instructing laptop users to draft summative rather than verbatim notes will boost performance. . mueller and Oppenheimer explored this idea by warning laptop note takers against the tendency to transcribe information without thinking, and explicitly instructed them to think about the information and type notes in their own words. .
Half of the students were instructed to take notes with a laptop, and the other half were instructed to write the notes out mother by hand. . As in other studies, students who used laptops took more notes. . In each study, however, those who wrote out their notes by hand had a stronger conceptual understanding and were more successful in applying and integrating the material than those who used took notes with their laptops. What drives this paradoxical finding? . mueller and Oppenheimer postulate that taking notes by hand requires different types of cognitive processing than taking notes on a laptop, and these different processes have consequences for learning. . Writing by hand is slower and more cumbersome than typing, and students cannot possibly write down every word in a lecture. . Instead, they listen, digest, and summarize so that they can succinctly capture the essence of the information. . Thus, taking notes by hand forces the brain to engage in some heavy mental lifting, and these efforts foster comprehension and retention. .
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From the number of gigs in a cellular data plan to the horsepower in a pickup truck, this mantra is ubiquitous in American culture. . When it comes to college students, the belief that more is better may underlie their widely-held view that laptops in the classroom enhance their academic performance. . Laptops do in fact allow students to do more, like engage in online activities and points demonstrations, collaborate more easily on papers and projects, access information from the internet, and take more notes. . Indeed, because students can type significantly faster than they can write, those who use laptops in the classroom tend to take more notes than those who write out their notes by hand. . Moreover, when students take notes using laptops they tend to take notes verbatim, writing down every last word uttered by their professor. Obviously it is advantageous to draft more complete notes that precisely capture the course content and allow for a verbatim review of the material at a later date. . New research by pam mueller and Daniel Oppenheimer demonstrates that students who write out their notes on paper actually learn more. . Across three experiments, mueller and Oppenheimer had students take notes in a classroom setting and then tested students on their memory for factual detail, their conceptual understanding of the material, and their ability to synthesize and generalize the information. .