Supplement to the third edition, 1801, 1803 edit a two-volume supplement to the third edition was published in 1801, having 1,624 pages and 50 copperplates. A revised edition was published in 1803. This supplement was published by a wine-merchant, Thomas Bonar, the son-in-law of the Britannica's owner Andrew Bell ; unfortunately, the two men quarreled and they never spoke for the last ten years of Bell's life (17991809). Bonar was friendly to the article authors, however, and conceived the plan of paying them as well as the article reviewers, and of allowing them to retain copyright for separate publication of their work. The Britannica explicitly positioned itself as a conservative publication in reaction to the radical French Encyclopédie of Diderot published between 1714 In the royal dedication penned on 10 December 1800,. Gleig elaborated on the editorial purpose of the Britannica The French Encyclopédie had been accused, and justly accused, of having disseminated far and wide the seeds of anarchy and atheism. If the Encyclopædia britannica shall in any degree counteract the tendency of that pestiferous work, even these two volumes will not be wholly unworthy of your Majesty's attention. 3 — george Gleig, in the dedication of the supplement to the 3rd edition of the Encyclopædia britannica fourth edition, 1810 edit The fourth edition was begun in 1800 and completed in 1810, comprising 20 volumes with 16,033 pages and 581 plates engraved by Andrew.
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The 3rd edition began the tradition (continued to this day) of dedicating the Britannica to the reigning British monarch, then King george iii ; calling him "the father of your people, and enlightened Patron of Arts, Sciences and Literature gleig wished. That, by review the wisdom of your councils, and the vigour of your Fleets and Armies, your majesty may be enabled soon to restore peace to europe; that you may again have leisure to extend your royal Care to the Improvement of Arts, and the Advancement. — george Gleig, in the dedication of the 3rd edition of the Encyclopædia britannica The 3rd edition is also famous for its bold article on "Motion which erroneously rejects Isaac Newton 's theory of gravitation. Gleig, or more likely, james Tytler, wrote that gravity is caused by the classical element of fire. He seems to have been swayed by william Jones ' essay on the first Principles of Natural Philosophy (1762 which in turn was based on John Hutchinson's ma thesis, moses' Principia, which was written in 1724 but rejected by Oxford University. Nevertheless, Gleig was sanguine about the errors of the 3rd edition, echoing William Smellie 's sentiment in the 1st edition"d above: For perfection seems to be incompatible with the nature of works constructed on such a plan, and embracing such a variety of subjects. — george Gleig, in the 3rd edition of the Encyclopædia britannica The first "American" encyclopedia, dobson's Encyclopædia, was based almost entirely on the 3rd edition of the Britannica and published at nearly the same time (17881798 together with an analogous supplement (1803 by the Scottish-born. The first United States copyright law was passed on —although anticipated by section 8 of Article i of the United States Constitution (ratified )—but did not protect foreign publications such as the Britannica. Unauthorized copying of the Britannica in America was also a problem with the 9th edition (1889). Unlicensed copies were also sold in Dublin essay by james moore under the title, moore's Dublin Edition, Encyclopædia britannica ; this was an exact reproduction of the Britannica 's 3rd edition. 1 by contrast, dobson's work had various corrections and amendments for American readers.
James Tytler again contributed heavily to the authorship, up to the letter. 12 Andrew Bell, macfarquhar's partner, bought the rights to the Britannica from Macfarquhar's heirs. Nearly doubling the scope of the 2nd edition, macfarquhar's encyclopedic vision was finally realized. Recruited by Gleig, several illustrious authorities contributed to this edition, such. Thomas Thomson, who introduced modern essay chemical nomenclature in a chart appended to the Chemistry article, 13 and would go on to re-write that article in the 1801 supplement (see below and John Robison, secretary of the royal Society of Edinburgh, who wrote several well-regarded articles. The third edition established the foundation of the Britannica as an important and definitive reference work for much of the next century. This edition was also enormously profitable, yielding 42,000 pounds sterling profit on the sale of roughly 10,000 copies.
12 expressly declares, that all his Majesty's colonies in America, have been, are, and of right ought to be, subordinate to and dependent upon the imperial crown and parliament of Great Britain; who have full power and authority to make laws and statutes of sufficient. And the attempting to enforce this by other acts of Parliament, penalties, and at last by military power, gave rise, as is well known, to the present revolt of our colonies. A 204-page appendix, written in 1784, is found at the end of Vol. It does not have its own title qualitative page, but merely follows with pagination continuing from 8996 to 9200. The appendix introduces articles on Entomology, ichthyology, weather, hindus (spelled Gentoos and others, and contains many new biographies, including one of Captain James cook. It curiously contains 25 new pages on Air, which give very little new information about air itself, but mainly cover hot air ballooning, one of Tytler's hobbies. The first page of the supplement begins with the words "Appendix containing articles omitted and others further explained or improved, together with corrections of errors and of wrong references." The appendix also includes 10 plates, namely cccxiv to cccxxiii. Third edition, 1797 edit main article: Encyclopædia britannica Third Edition The third edition was published from 1788 to 1797 in 300 weekly numbers (1 shilling apiece these numbers were collected and sold unbound in 30 parts (10 shilling, sixpence each and finally in 1797 they. Macfarquhar again edited this edition up to "Mysteries" but died in 1793 (aged 48) of "mental exhaustion his work was taken over by george Gleig, later Bishop Gleig of Brechin (consecrated ).
— james Tytler, in the 2nd edition of the Encyclopædia britannica and a somewhat melancholy article on " love " that persisted in the Britannica for nearly a century (until its 9th edition As the force of love prevails, sighs grow deeper; a tremor affects. — james Tytler, in the 2nd8th editions of the Encyclopædia britannica like the first edition, the second was sold in sections by subscription at the printing shop of Colin MacFarquhar. When finished in 1784, complete sets were sold at Charles Elliot's book shop in Edinburgh for 10 pounds, unbound. Over 1,500 copies of the second edition were sold this way by Elliot in less than one year, 9 making the second edition enough of a financial success that a more ambitious third edition was begun a few years later. The long period of time during which this edition was written makes the later volumes more updated than the earlier ones. Volume 10, published in 1783 after the revolutionary war was over, gives in the entry for Virginia: "Virginia, late one of the British colonies, now one of the United States of North America." 10 but the entry in Volume 2 for Boston, published in 1778. The following is a description of this capital before the commencement of the present American war." 11 The causes of the revolution are outlined concisely by tytler in the article "Colonies" thus: Because several of the colonies had claimed the soul and exclusive right.
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1 Compared to adventure the 1st edition, the second had five times as many long articles (150 including "Scotland" (84 pages "Optics" (132 pages and "Medicine" (309 pages which had their own indices. The second edition was published in 181 numbers from to 18 September 1784; these numbers were bound into ten volumes dated 17781783, having 8,595 pages and 340 plates again engraved by Andrew Bell. 2 A pagination error caused page 8000 to follow page 7099. Most of the maps of this edition (eighteen of them) are found in a single 195-page article, " geography ". The second edition improved greatly upon the 1st, but is still notable for the large amount of now-archaic information it contained. For example, "Chemistry" goes into great detail on an obsolete system of what would now be called alchemy, in which earth, air, water and fire are named elements containing various amounts of phlogiston.
Tytler also describes the architecture of noah's Ark in detail (illustrated with a copperplate engraving) and, following Bishop Ussher, includes a remarkably precise chronology for the earth, beginning with its creation. And noting that the Great Flood of 2348. Lasted for exactly 777 days. The 2nd edition also reports a cure for tuberculosis : he chose a spot of ground on which no plants had been sown, and there he made a hole bureau large and deep enough to admit the patient up to the chin. The interstices of the pit were then carefully filled up with the fresh mould, so that the earth might everywhere come in contact with the patient's body. In this situation the patient suffered to remain till he began to shiver or felt himself e patient was then taken out, and, after being wrapped in a linen cloth, was placed upon a mattress, and two hours afterwards his whole body was rubbed with.
— william Smellie, in the Preface to the 1st edition of the Encyclopædia britannica Smellie strove to make britannica as usable as possible, saying that "utility ought to be the principal intention of every publication. Wherever this intention does not plainly appear, neither the books nor their authors have the smallest claim to the approbation of mankind". The first edition was reprinted in London, with slight variants on the title page and a different preface, by Edward and Charles Dilly in 1773 and by john Donaldson in 1775. 4 On the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the 1st edition, encyclopædia britannica Inc. Published a facsimile of the 1st edition, even including "age spots" on the paper.
This has been periodically reprinted and is still part of Britannica's product line. 5 Second edition, 1783, supplement 1784 edit main article: Encyclopædia britannica second Edition After the success of the first edition, a more ambitious second edition was begun in 1776, with the addition of history and biography articles. 6 Smellie declined to be editor, principally because he objected to the addition of biography. Macfarquhar took over the role himself, aided by pharmacist James Tytler,. A., 7 who was known as an able writer and willing to work for a very low wage. 8 Macfarquhar and Bell rescued Tytler from the debtors' sanctuary at Holyrood Palace, and employed him for seven years at 17 shillings per week. Tytler wrote many science and history articles and almost all of the minor articles; by robert Burns ' estimate, tytler wrote over three-quarters of the second edition.
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Smellie wrote most of the first professional edition, borrowing liberally from the authors of his era, including Voltaire, benjamin Franklin, alexander Pope and Samuel Johnson. He later said: 1 I wrote most of it, my lad, and snipped out from books enough material for the printer. With pastepot and scissors I composed it! — william Smellie, at a meeting of the Crochallan Fencibles The vivid prose and easy navigation of the first edition led to strong demand resume for a second. Although this edition has been faulted for its imperfect scholarship, Smellie argued that the Britannica should be given the benefit of the doubt: With regard to errors in general, whether falling under the denomination of mental, typographical or accidental, we are conscious of being able. Men who are acquainted with the innumerable difficulties of attending the execution of a work of such an extensive nature will make proper allowances. To these we appeal, and shall rest satisfied with the judgment they pronounce.
The first number appeared on 6 December 1768 in Edinburgh, priced sixpence or 8 pence on finer paper. The Britannica was published under the pseudonym "a society of Gentlemen in Scotland possibly referring to the many gentlemen who had bought subscriptions. 1 by releasing the numbers in weekly instalments, the Britannica was completed in 1771, having 2,391 pages. The numbers were bound in three equally sized volumes covering ab, cl, and MZ; an estimated 3,000 sets were eventually sold, priced at 12 pounds sterling apiece. 2 The 1st edition also featured 160 copperplate illustrations engraved by bell. Three of the engravings in the section on midwifery, depicting childbirth in clinical detail, were sufficiently shocking to prompt some readers to tear those engravings out of the volume. 1 The key idea that set the Britannica apart was to group related topics together into longer essays, that were then organized alphabetically. Previous English encyclopedias had generally listed related terms separately in their alphabetical order, rather like a modern technical dictionary, an approach galaxy that the Britannica's' management derided as "dismembering the sciences". 3 Although anticipated by dennis de coetlogon, the idea for this "new plan" is generally ascribed to colin Macfarquhar, although William Smellie claimed it as his own invention.
failed two-volume a universal History of Arts and Sciences of Dennis de coetlogon (published 1745) grouped its topics into long self-contained treatises, an organization that likely inspired the "new plan". The first encyclopedia to include biographies of living people was the 64-volume Grosses Universal-Lexicon (published 17321759) of Johann heinrich Zedler, who argued that death alone should not render people notable. Earliest editions (1st6th, 17681824) edit first edition, 1771 edit main article: Encyclopædia britannica first Edition Title page from the first edition A page from the first edition. The flow of short entries is interrupted here by one of the major treatises. The Britannica was the idea of Colin Macfarquhar, a bookseller and printer, and Andrew Bell, an engraver, both of Edinburgh. They conceived of the Britannica as a conservative reaction to the French Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot (published 17511766 which was widely viewed as heretical. Ironically, the Encyclopédie had begun as a french translation of the popular English encyclopedia, cyclopaedia published by Ephraim Chambers in 1728. Although later editions of Chambers' cyclopaedia were still popular, and despite the commercial failure of other English encyclopedias, macfarquhar and Bell were inspired by the intellectual ferment of the Scottish Enlightenment and thought the time ripe for a new encyclopedia "compiled upon a new plan". Needing an editor, the two chose a 28-year-old scholar named William Smellie who was offered 200 pounds sterling to produce the encyclopedia in 100 parts (called "numbers" and equivalent to thick pamphlets which were later bound into three volumes.
Britannica has developed several "spin-off" products to leverage its reputation as a reliable reference work and educational tool. Contents 1 Historical context 2 Earliest editions (1st6th, 17681824).1 First edition, 1771.2 Second edition, 1783, supplement 1784.3 Third edition, 1797.4 Supplement to the third edition, 1801, 1803.5 fourth edition, 1810.6 Fifth edition, 1817.7 Supplement to the fifth edition. Black editions (7th9th, 18271901) 4 First American editions (10th14th, 19011973) 5 The fifteenth edition 6 The Global Edition 7 development of electronic versions 8 References 9 External links, historical context edit, see also: Encyclopedia and, list of encyclopedias, encyclopedias of various types had been published. Aristotle and the, natural History of, pliny the Elder, the latter having 2493 articles in 37 books. Encyclopedias were published in Europe and China throughout the. Middle Ages, such as the, satyricon of, martianus Minneus Felix Capella (early 5th century the, speculum majus ( Great Mirror ) of Vincent of beauvais (1250 and Encyclopedia septem tomis distincta ( a seven-Part Encyclopedia ) by johann heinrich Alsted (1630). Most early encyclopedias did not include biographies of living people and were written in Latin, although some encyclopedias were translated into English, such as de proprietatibus rerum (On the properties of things) (1240) by bartholomeus Anglicus. However, English-composed encyclopedias appeared in the 18th century, beginning lab with Lexicon technicum, or a universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences by john Harris (two volumes, published 17, respectively which contained articles by such contributors as Isaac Newton.
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Open Educational Resources, webAssign offers surgery a wide selection of affordable, peer-reviewed, high-quality academic content for stem disciplines, including tutorial banks and assessments. Read More, cengage Unlimited, give your students access to all the digital learning platforms, ebooks, online homework and study tools Cengage has to offer—for 119.99 per semester. Advertisement for, encyclopædia britannica, 1913, the, encyclopædia britannica has been published continuously since 1768, appearing in fifteen official editions. Several editions have been amended with multi-volume "supplements" (3rd, 5th/6th consisted of previous editions with added supplements (10th, and 12th/13th) or undergone drastic re-organizations (15th). In recent years, digital versions of the. Britannica have been developed, both online and on optical media. Since the early 1930s, the.