Bloody stools or heavy menstrual bleeding. Nausea and vomiting, respiratory symptoms, such as a cough, sore throat, or nasal congestion. These symptoms usually last for three to seven days, at which point the fever breaks. After the fever breaks, people either start to get better or get much worse, developing severe dengue. According to world health Organization (WHO) guidelines, any of the following symptoms are warning signs that may signal the development of severe dengue, often called dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf abdominal pain or tenderness, persistent vomiting, lethargy or restlessness, mucosal bleeding, such as bleeding gums. Liver enlargement, fluid accumulation in the lungs or abdomen (as shown. X-ray or ultrasound ) Dengue hemorrhagic fever Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is the most serious form of dengue infection.
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Prevalence, before 1970, only nine countries had experienced severe dengue epidemics. Now, the disease is widespread (endemic) in more than 100 countries worldwide. About half of the world's population is at risk for dengue infection. An estimated 500,000 people with severe dengue require hospitalization each year. The mortality rate in this group is about.5 percent. The island of Hawaii (the "Big Island was affected by an outbreak of dengue from September 2015 to march 2016, during which 264 cases were reported. Symptoms of dengue fever typically develop between ginsberg 3 and 14 days after a person is bitten by an infected mosquito. Classic symptoms include: fever, headache and pain behind the eyes. Severe muscle and joint pains (the source of dengue's nickname, "breakbone fever. Extreme fatigue, rash appearing between the second and fifth day of fever. Tendency to bleed from the skin or nose.
Dengue is spread by statement the same kind of mosquito that spreads the. Zika virus and the virus that causes yellow fever. What causes Dengue fever? The viruses that cause dengue fever are spread by mosquitoes of the species. Aedes aegypti, and sometimes also by, aedes albopictus. Aedes mosquitoes are usually found in urban and suburban areas, as they like to breed in man-made containers like tires, flowerpots, and household water. Aedes albopictus mosquitos have been transported to north America and Europe by Asian products like used tires and lucky bamboo. These mosquitos can survive subfreezing temperatures, which has allowed dengue to spread to cooler climates.
2 Brady oj, gething pw, bhatt s, messina jp, brownstein js, hoen ag. Refining the global spatial limits of for dengue virus transmission by evidence-based consensus. Plos negl Trop Dis. Dengue fever is a viral infection that can cause life-threatening illness, great milder flu -like illness, or no symptoms at all. In recent decades, the number of new cases of dengue has increased dramatically. There are four subtypes of dengue. Each can infect you only once, but they don't provide complete immunity, so you can still become infected by the other subtypes. The risk for severe dengue increases with each infection.
Immunization, in late 2015 and early 2016, the first dengue vaccine, dengvaxia (cyd-tdv) by sanofi pasteur, was registered in several countries for use in individuals 9-45 years of age living in endemic areas. Who recommends that countries should consider introduction of the dengue vaccine cyd-tdv only in geographic settings (national or subnational) where epidemiological data indicate a high burden of disease. Complete recommendations may be found in the who position paper on dengue: Other tetravalent live-attenuated vaccines are under development in phase iii clinical trials, and other vaccine candidates (based on subunit, dna and purified inactivated virus platforms) are at earlier stages of clinical development. Who provides technical advice and guidance to countries and private partners to support vaccine research and evaluation. Prevention and control, at present, the main method to control or prevent the transmission of dengue virus is to combat vector mosquitoes through: preventing mosquitoes from accessing egg-laying habitats by environmental management and modification; disposing of solid waste properly and removing artificial man-made habitats; covering. Careful clinical detection and management of dengue patients can significantly reduce mortality rates from severe dengue. Who response who responds to dengue in the following ways: supports countries in the confirmation of outbreaks through its collaborating network of laboratories; provides technical support and guidance to countries for the effective management of dengue outbreaks; supports countries to improve their reporting systems and. 1 Bhatt s, gething pw, brady oj, messina jp, farlow aw, moyes. The global distribution and burden of dengue.
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Aedes albopictus, a secondary dengue vector in Asia, has spread to north America and more than 25 countries in the european Region, largely due to the international trade in used tyres (a breeding habitat) and other goods (e.g. Albopictus is highly adaptive and, therefore, can survive in cooler temperate regions of Europe. Its spread is due to its tolerance to temperatures below freezing, hibernation, and ability to shelter in microhabitats. Characteristics, dengue fever is a severe, flu-like illness that affects infants, young children and adults, but seldom causes death. Dengue should be suspected when a high fever (40C/104F) is accompanied by statement 2 of the following life symptoms: severe headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and joint pains, nausea, vomiting, swollen glands or rash. Symptoms usually last for 27 days, after an incubation period of 410 days after the bite from an infected mosquito. Severe dengue is a potentially deadly complication due to plasma leaking, fluid accumulation, respiratory distress, severe bleeding, or organ impairment.
Warning signs occur 37 days after the first symptoms in conjunction with a decrease in temperature (below 38C/100F) and include: severe abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, rapid breathing, bleeding gums, fatigue, restlessness and blood in vomit. The next 2448 hours of the critical stage can be lethal; proper medical care is needed to avoid complications and risk of death. Treatment, there is no specific treatment for dengue fever. For severe dengue, medical care by physicians and nurses experienced with the effects and progression of the disease can save lives decreasing mortality rates from more than 20 to less than. Maintenance of the patient's body fluid volume is critical to severe dengue care.
In the African Region, burkina faso reported a localized outbreak of dengue with 1061 probable cases. In 2017 (as of Epidemiological week 11 the region of Americas have reported 50 172 cases of dengue fever, a reduction as compared with corresponding periods in previous years. The western Pacific Region has reported dengue outbreaks in several Member States in the pacific, as well as the circulation of denv-1 and denv-2 serotypes. An estimated 500 000 people with severe dengue require hospitalization each year, and about.5 of those affected die. Transmission, the, aedes aegypti mosquito is the primary vector of dengue. The virus is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female mosquitoes.
After virus incubation for 410 days, an infected mosquito is capable of transmitting the virus for the rest of its life. Infected symptomatic or asymptomatic humans are the main carriers and multipliers of the virus, serving as a source of the virus for uninfected mosquitoes. Patients who are already infected with the dengue virus can transmit the infection (for 45 days; maximum 12) via. Aedes mosquitoes after their first symptoms appear. The, aedes aegypti mosquito lives in urban habitats and breeds mostly in man-made containers. Aegypti is a day-time feeder; its peak biting periods are early in the morning and in the evening before dusk. Aegypti bites multiple people during each feeding period.
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Dengue was also reported in Japan after a lapse of over 70 years. In 2015, delhi, india, recorded its worst outbreak since 2006 with over 15 000 cases. The Island of Hawaii, united States of America, was affected by an outbreak with 181 cases reported in 2015 and ongoing transmission in 2016. The pacific island countries of Fiji, tonga and French Polynesia have continued to record cases. The year 2016 was characterized by large dengue outbreaks worldwide. The region of the Americas region reported more than.38 million cases in 2016, where Brazil writers alone contributed slightly less than.5 million cases, approximately 3 times higher than in 2014. 1032 dengue deaths were also reported in the region. The western Pacific Region reported more than 375 000 suspected cases of dengue in 2016, of which the Philippines reported 176 411 and Malaysia 100 028 cases, representing a similar burden to the previous year for both countries. The solomon Islands declared an outbreak with more than 7000 suspected.
Not only is the number of cases increasing as the disease spreads to new areas, but explosive outbreaks are occurring. The threat of a possible outbreak of dengue fever now exists in Europe as local transmission was reported for the first time in France and Croatia in 2010 and imported ppt cases were detected in 3 other European countries. In 2012, an outbreak of dengue on the madeira islands of Portugal resulted in over 2 000 cases and imported cases were detected in mainland Portugal and 10 other countries in Europe. Among travellers returning from low- and middle-income countries, dengue is the second most diagnosed cause of fever after malaria. In 2013, cases have occurred in Florida (United States of America) and Yunnan province of China. Dengue also continues to affect several south American countries, notably costa rica, honduras and Mexico. In Asia, singapore has reported an increase in cases after a lapse of several years and outbreaks have also been reported in laos. In 2014, trends indicate increases in the number of cases in the people's Republic of China, the cook islands, fiji, malaysia and Vanuatu, with Dengue type 3 (den 3) affecting the pacific Island countries after a lapse of over 10 years.
of cases reported in recent years. Other features of the disease include its epidemiological patterns, including hyper-endemicity of multiple dengue virus serotypes in many countries and the alarming impact on both human health and the global and national economies. Before 1970, only 9 countries had experienced severe dengue epidemics. The disease is now endemic in more than 100 countries in the who regions of Africa, the Americas, the eastern Mediterranean, south-East Asia and the western Pacific. The America, south-East Asia and Western Pacific regions are the most seriously affected. Cases across the Americas, south-East Asia and Western Pacific exceeded.2 million in 2008 and over.2 million in 2015 (based on official data submitted by member States). Recently the number of reported cases has continued to increase. In 2015,.35 million cases of dengue were reported in the Americas alone, of which 10 200 cases were diagnosed as severe dengue causing 1181 deaths.
Recovery from infection by one provides lifelong immunity against that particular serotype. However, cross-immunity to the other serotypes after recovery is only partial and temporary. Subsequent infections by other serotypes increase the risk of developing severe dengue. Global burden of dengue, the incidence of dengue has grown dramatically around the world in recent decades. The actual numbers of dengue cases are underreported and many cases are misclassified. One recent estimate indicates 390 million dengue infections per year (95 credible interval 284528 million of which 96 million (67136 million) manifest clinically (with any severity of disease).1 Another study, of the prevalence of dengue, estimates the that.9 billion people, in 128 countries, are. Member States in 3 who regions regularly report the annual number of cases.
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Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has rapidly spread in all regions of who in recent years. Dengue virus is transmitted by female mosquitoes mainly of the species. Aedes aegypti and, to a lesser extent,. This mosquito also transmits chikungunya, yellow fever and zika infection. Dengue is widespread throughout the tropics, with local variations in risk influenced by rainfall, temperature and unplanned rapid urbanization. Severe dengue (also known as Dengue haemorrhagic fever) was first recognized in the 1950s during dengue epidemics in the Philippines and Thailand. Today, dillard severe dengue affects most Asian and Latin American countries and has become a leading cause of hospitalization and death among children and adults in these regions. There are 4 distinct, but closely related, serotypes of the virus that cause dengue (den-1, den-2, den-3 and den-4).