The addiction from the opioids is caused by: (1) the withdrawal symptoms being too much tolerate; (2) the sense of euphoria simply feels good; and (3) it is an attempt to self-medicate an endogenous psychological or physical disorder (Perrine, 1996). One method of quitting addiction, not just to opioids, but to any dug, is the holistic way, which can include acupuncture, homeopathy, massage therapy, aromatherapy, yoga, nutrition therapy, and dozens more (Apostolides, 1996). The opioids affect the central nervous system as a depressant, which are very addictive both mentally and physically. Alcohol affects the user in a similar manner. Depressants are some of the more commonly abused drugs, mainly alcohol because it is sociably acceptable to use. Alcohol is the most abused depressant in the United States. With alcohol being tried for the first time by this year by 773,417 people, 101,302 this month, and 10,167 today (3/8/98) (ncadi, 1998).
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Morphine, like laudanum, is derived from opium, but it is different in that it was the resume first alkaloid discovered, and was named after Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams (Perrine, 1996). Morphine is used in medical practice as a pain reliever, and is classified as a schedule ii drug. It is the drug of choice with most doctors whose patients suffer from pain related to heart attacks. It is much more potent in injected form than when taken orally, and must usually be administered under controlled circumstances (Perrine, 1996). Heroin is also an opioid, and is formed by reacting morphine with one of many acetylating agents. Heroin by itself is inactive, but when it enters the brain, it is chemically changed and attaches itself to the opioid receptors in the brain (Perrine, 1996). Heroin is illegal in the United States, but is used medically in countries such as the United Kingdom, belgium, canada, iceland, the netherlands, and Switzerland. Heroin is a very addictive drug, and the most popular treatment is methadone. Methadone is a drug that is similar to heroin, except that it takes several hours to take affect and doesnt provide the high that heroin does. An estimated 600,000 dessay heroin addicts are in the United States, and only about 115,000 are enrolled in methadone maintenance programs (Recer, 1997).
The name for opium is derived from the latin word Papaver somniferum. It is one of the oldest drugs known to mankind, presumably being used by the sumerians around 4,000 bc to relieve pain and help induce sleep (Perrine, 1996). Thomas de quincey, author of Confessions of an English Opium-Eater, was an admitted abuser of laudanum, to the point where he nashville took about.8 grams a day. De quincey felt that opium enhanced his mental powers, and felt that it was much better than alcohol in many regards (Perrine, 1996). This abuse in the long run, however, took its toll on de quincey. After enough constant abuse of laudanum, opium in its freebased form, he was tortured by horrific dreams that kept him awake, causing him to eventually have to decrease the amount he used by 32 times his original daily usage. He was also never able to drop below this maintenance level of 250 drops a day or he suffered severe withdrawal symptoms (Perrine, 1996). This is only one example of the negative effects of this opioid on the human body.
Found in the brain are the synapses, the interaction point of two neurons (Perrine, 1996). The synapses in the brain are often the main target of a drug, altering the perception of something at the point of perception. When a drug is taken, it attaches itself to receptors in the brain, which have a pattern chemically similar to the neurotransmitters that send and receive messages in the brain. Perrine makes the analogy of a drug to receptors as a hand to a doorknob. Because certain drugs can attach themselves to these receptors, they may become blocked, and the neurotransmitters originally being sent by the brains neurons are forced to wander around the brain until it can find another similar receptor, possibly creating a false signal (Perrine, 1996). The physiological responses created by these false signals, sent by both the drug and the extraneous neurotransmitters are what are perceived to be the effects of the drugs. However, the effects of drugs vary greatly from person to person. Perrine states that are four main aspects to keep in mind engelsk when considering the effects of drugs on each individual person: (1) the individual, the particular human being, both as a unique biological organism with a possibly idiosyncratic response to a given chemical substance and. Opiates are a classification of drugs that include heroin, morphine, and opium.
Drugs And Abuse Essay, research Paper. Mobley, drugs and Abuse, abuse of drugs can have effects on the user even after the use of drugs has stopped. Different drugs produce different effects, depending on the user, type of drug, and severity of abuse. New research is done every day in the area of drug abuse that makes finding accurate results on the broad topic of drug abuse very difficult. From the most recent studies only can one find data that is presently accepted as correct. These numerous studies provide enough data to explain the effects of both legal and illegal drugs. To understand how drugs work, it is necessary to understand the changes that take place in different areas of the body when drugs take affect.
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Joel is 12 years-old now and he is usually watching the younger children so they wouldnt get lost." More than 4 million us women thesis aged 18 and can be classified as alcoholic or problem drinker. The make up nearly a quarter of all individuals in treatment for alcoholism. Another tragic and very important issue ate the " Crack babies". A crack baby is a child born to a mother who was smoking crack during her pregnancy and up until the time of birth. The infant is addicted at birth, suffers withdrawal agonies, and continues to suffer from developmental abnormalities. These tragedies occur at too high a rate no matter how many there are? The 1991 household Survey data estimated that about 280,000 women of all ages might have used crack at some time during the year.
Children are introduced to drugs and alcohol at a very young age. Many of them see alcohol and drugs in their homes, used by their parents on daily bases. Some of these children dont even realize that it is wrong, "not normal and not accepted in other homes until they are old enough to understand that situation in their home is a problem and that it is wrong. Minors usually begin using alcohol at around age. Statistics show that by the time they are high school sinners, 81 percent of teens have used alcohol. Alcohol consumption and alcohol abuse are more widespread among young people than many adults realize. Drug abuse is also very high.
She finally did and she left. Since it was right before the holiday the store was very busy. There were a lot of people, some with children and I didnt notice anything strange. About 20 minutes later we were closing the store and I went to turn off the lights on Christmas tree. When I got closer to the tree i was shocked.
The little boy who came with his drunken mother was still in the store. He was sleeping on the boxes right under the Christmas tree and holding a small Santa Clause ornament in his tiny, little hand. His mother forgot about him and didnt even notice that he was gone until Police found her around midnight. One of the police Officers talked me the next day that when they found the woman and asked her about her four year-old son, she said that the boy is home with her boyfriend. She still buys beer in our store. I see her almost ever day and she is usually drunk. In eight years she had four more children.
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Around 5 oclock young woman came in with two small children. She about asked where is the cheapest beer, bought 3 40-oz bottles and left. She came back, except that this time she was crawled. Her small children were still with her. The children were crying and I could see that they were tired, cold and probably hungry. While the mother was getting the beer, the older child went to look at the Christmas tree, which we had in the corner of the store. The woman was so drunk that it took her a long time to get the beer she wanted and then to find the money to pay for.
If all alcohol-related birth defects are counted, the rate among heavy-drinking woman is higher, from 80 to a few hundred per 1000. About 28 million people are the children of alcoholics, and essay 7 million of these children are under age 18 and live at home with an alcoholic parent. "The combination of genetic and environmental factors makes sons of alcoholic fathers four times more likely to become alcoholics than sons of nonalcoholic. Daughters of alcoholic mothers are three times more likely to have the drinking problem. Finally, alcohol is present in more than one-half of all incidents of domestic violence, with women more likely to batter when both partners have been drinking. I work at the liquor store for the past eight years and I see drunken women every day. It is shocking and I dont think that I can ever get used to see drunken women, especially drunken mothers coming in with their children. My first experience with a drunken female customer was on the first day of my work, few days before Christmas. I know that that day will stay in my memory forever.
beer with his lunch on a hot summer day, or a doctor having a drink on a break between the operations. About 43 percent of all Americans have experienced alcoholism in their families and one in eight Americans is the child of an alcoholic. Thy grow up with or married an alcoholic or a problem drinker, or had a blood relative who was an alcoholic or a problem drinker. Excessive drinking exacts a heavy toll on family life. Of the estimated 19 million adult are problem drinkers, about 8 million of them are alcoholics, and almost half of them are women. It is not unusual to see a pregnant woman drinking alcohol or a mother being drunk while she is taking care of her young children or babies. Many children are being born with a fetal Alcohol Syndrome (facial and developmental abnormalities associated with the mothers alcohol use during pregnancy). Fas itself seems to occur in 23 to births among women who are problem drinkers.
It becomes a real problem when using or I should say abusing drugs cause accidents, antisocial behavior, broken relationships, family instability, crime and violence, poverty, unsafe streets and highways, worker absenteeism and nonproductivity, and the most tragic one death. The situation in which the drug or alcohol uses accurse often makes all the difference. The clearest example is the drinking of alcohol, when individual begins to drink desk during the job, at school, or in the morning, we have evidence that indicates a potential drinking problem. If a person takes narcotic drug because he just wrecked his knee while his physician prescribed playing football and the drug, most of us would be not concerned. If, on the other hand, he took the. Same drug on his own just because he likes the way it makes him feel, then we should begin to worry about him developing dependence. Even use of illegal drugs are sometimes acceptable, but it also depends on situation, for example in some countries smoking marijuana is legal just like drinking alcohol in United States. Some subcultures even in United States that accept the use of illegal drugs may distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable situation, some college age groups might accept marijuana smoking at a party on weekends, but not just before going to a calculus class. Most of people would accept a fact that a bartender or a waiter who is working at a night club is having a beer or a drink on his break or that a landscape worker is having a cold beer with his lunch.
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Alcohol And Drug Abuse Essay, research Paper. Alcohol and drug, abuse, alcohol and drug abuse is one of biggest problems in United States today. It is not only writing a personal problem that dramatically affects individuals life but is a major social problem that affects society as whole. "Drug and alcohol abuse these phrases we hear daily on the radio, television or in discussions of social problem. But what do they mean or what do we think and understand by it? Most of us dont really view drug or alcohol use as a problem, if that includes your grandmother taking two aspirins when she has a headache or your friends having few beers or drinks on Saturday night. What we really mean is that some drugs or alcohol are being used by some people or in some situations constitute problem with which our society must deal.